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All Hallows’ Evening

Someone wearing a ghost costume in a rural schoolhouse (1905) – Historic Photo Archive/Getty Images

Also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows’ Eve, or All Saints’ Eve, Halloween originated with the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain, when people would light bonfires and wear costumes to ward off ghosts. The Celts, who lived 2,000 years ago in the area that is now Ireland, the United Kingdom and northern France, celebrated their new year on November 1. This day marked the end of summer and the harvest and the beginning of the dark, cold winter, a time of year that was often associated with human death. Celts believed that on the night before the new year, the boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead became blurred. On the night of October 31 they celebrated Samhain, when it was believed that the ghosts of the dead returned to earth.

In addition to causing trouble and damaging crops, Celts thought that the presence of the otherworldly spirits made it easier for the Druids, or Celtic priests, to make predictions about the future. For a people entirely dependent on the volatile natural world, these prophecies were an important source of comfort and direction during the long, dark winter. In the eighth century, Pope Gregory III designated November 1 as a time to honor all saints. Soon, All Saints Day incorporated some of the traditions of Samhain. The evening before was known as All Hallows Eve, and later Halloween.

A group of people at a Halloween gathering in Scotland (ca. 1780) – Photo: Hulton Archive/Getty Images
A white caped figure wearing a Halloween pumpkin mask taking two people by surprise in their kitchen. London Stereoscopic Company Comic Series – (ca. 1865) – Photo: London Stereoscopic Company/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Halloween in 1910 ca. (Reprinted Photo)
Halloween in 1923 – Photo: Ullstein Bild
A young girl in a Halloween hat posing with a jack o’ lantern (ca. 1945) – Photo: Harold M. Lambert/Getty Images

The word — a contraction of All Hallows’ Evening — dates to about 1745 and is of Christian origin. It means “hallowed evening” or “holy evening” and comes from a Scottish term for All Hallows’ Eve — the evening before All Hallows’ Day. In Scots, the word “eve” is even, and this is contracted to e’en or een. Although the phrase “All Hallows’” is found in Old English “All Hallows’ Eve” is itself not seen until 1556.

As the beliefs and customs of different European ethnic groups as well as the American Indians meshed, a distinctly American version of Halloween began to emerge. Colonial Halloween festivities also featured the telling of ghost stories and mischief-making of all kinds. In the second half of the nineteenth century, America was flooded with new immigrants. These new immigrants, especially the millions of Irish fleeing the Irish Potato Famine, helped to popularize the celebration of Halloween nationally.

Over time, Halloween evolved into a day of activities like trick-or-treating and carving jack-o-lanterns. Around the world, as days grow shorter and nights get colder, people continue to usher in the season with gatherings, costumes and sweet treats.

Burns Park School Halloween Parade (October 1951) – Photo: The Ann Arbor News
Burns Park School Halloween Parade (October 1951) – Photo: The Ann Arbor News
Children in costumes arriving at a Halloween party. A sign on the door warns “Beware Ghosts are within!” (USA, ca. 1955) – Photo: Joe Clark/Hulton Archive/Getty Image
Three children wearing Halloween costumes and holding trick-or-treat bags with their hands held out (ca. 1955) – Photo: Harold M. Lambert
Children in costumes arriving at a Halloween party (ca. 1960) – Photo: Hulton Archive/Getty Image
Richmond, Virginia (1963) – Emmet Gowin
La Petite Mort – Gary Baseman
The New Yorker Magazine (October 31, 1959) – Cover by William Steig
Halloween Night – Shahab Shamshirsaz
The Pumpkin Witch – Brandi Milne
Crazy Magazine №15 (1976) – Cover by Nick Cardy
Halloween Harvest – Sabin Boykinov

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